Human needs seem endless. When a hungry man gets a meal, he begins to think about an overcoat; when a manager gets a new sports car, a big house and pleasure boats dance into view.
The many needs of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels. When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level appears.
The first and most basic level of needs involves food. Once this level is satisfied, the second level of needs, clothing and some sort of shelter, appears. By the end of World War II, these needs were satisfied for a great majority of Americans. Then a third level appeared. It included such items as automobiles and new houses.
By 1957 or 1958 this third level of needs was fairly well satisfied. Then, in the late 1950s, a fourth level of needs appeared: the "life enriching" level. While the other levels involve physical satisfaction, that is, the feeding, comfort, safety, and transportation, this level stresses mental needs for recognition, achievement, and happiness. It includes a variety of goods and services, many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation trips, the best medical and dental care, and recreation. Also included here are fancy goods and the latest styles in clothing.
On the fourth level, a lot of money is spent on services, while on the first three levels more is spent on goods. Will consumers raise their sights to a fifth level of needs as their income increases, or will they continue to demand luxuries and personal services on the fourth level?
A fifth level would probably involve needs that can be achieved best by community action. Consumers may be spending more on taxes to pay for government action against disease, ignorance, crim, and prejudice. After filling our stomachs, our clothes closets, our garages, our teeth, and our minds, we now may seek to ensure the health, safety, and leisure to enjoy more fully the good things on the first four levels.
1. According to the passage, man will begin to think about such needs as housing and clothing only when ______.
A. he has saved up enough money
B. he has grown dissatisfied with his simple shelter
C. he has satisfied his hunger
D. he has learned to build houses
2. It can be inferred from the passage that by the end of World War Ⅱ, most Americans ______.
A. were very rich
B. lived in poverty
C. had the good things on the first three levels
D. did not own automobiles
3. Which of the following is NOT related to "physical satisfaction"?
A. A successful career. B. A comfortable home.
C. A good meal. D. A family car.
4. What is the main concern of man on the fourth level?
A. The more goods the better.
B. The more mental satisfaction the better.
C. The more “luxury” items the better.
D. The more earnings the better.
5. The author tends to think that the fifth level ______.
A. would be little better than the fourth level
B. may be a lot more desirable than the first four
C. can be the last and most satisfying level
D. will become attainable before the government takes actions